Friday, March 27, 2020
With suppliers located in China, Vietnam and Cambodia, Wal-Mart is able to provide consumers with products priced at a far lower rate as compared to their product counterparts from manufacturers based in the U.S.(CBC Documentary, 2009). Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Is Walmart Good For America? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This situation is in part due to the far lower labor cost, material cost and business incentives that production in regions such as Asia brings. What this means for U.S. based consumers is the ability to buy products at a lower rate than they otherwise would have been able to resulting in significant savings over the course of a year (CBC Documentary, 2009). As the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest company and retailer, Wal-Mart has come to be a representation of a distinct shift in the balance of market power wherein retailers instead of manufacturers take a dominant role in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s econom y (Petrovic Hamilton, N.D.). This is in part due to the effects of globalization wherein the procurement strategies of retailers are no longer limited to a local or regional basis but rather take into account the reality of a global supplier base (Petrovic Hamilton, N.D.). Yet it must be questioned whether such savings actually helps American shoppers and in a larger context it must be asked whether Wal-Mart is truly good for America or is it detrimental towards the development of the American economy? It must be noted that consumer spending is the driving force behind the American economy. People spending money on products keeps a local business functioning which in turn provides jobs in the local economy giving people the ability to spend. In essence it is a cycle of spending that encourages economic growth and stability. When Wal-Mart came into the picture it presented consumers with the ability to purchase products at a far lower cost per product ratio as compared to other shopping centers (CBC Documentary, 2009). Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was done by reducing the pay scale of employees to the bare minimum which as result enabled the company to lower the cost of operations enabling it to lower the price of the products it sold (CBC Documentary, 2009). Their strategy of cutting costs through any means possible in order to keep the price of products low has resulted in local manufacturing jobs to slowly but surely disappear from the landscape of the U.S. (Paruchuri et al., 2009). This of course creates problems for consumer spending resulting in a slowdown of the U.S. economy due to fewer people having jobs. This resulting situation has more people choosing the affordable and cheap products that Wal-Mart provides and as a result this starts a new cycle where instead of continuous economic growth and prosperity there is a slow but s ure deterioration of the U.S. economy (Elliot and Powell, 2003). Is Wal-Mart Good For the World? The procurement strategies employed by Wal-Mart are actually a boon for the economies of several countries. The global outsourcing industry has actually fueled the growth of countries such as China resulting in resurgence and growth in their economies. The jobs that were once based in the U.S. are now in the hands of foreign workers which has fueled and increased consumer spending in their respective economies causing a sudden spike in their growth rates. Within the past 20 years this method of lowering costs has encompassed the global outsourcing industry where products for sale within Wal-Mart are no longer exclusively produced in the U.S. but rather are sourced from multiple international locations. Wal-Mart is not alone in this particular procurement strategy with multiple companies doing the exact same thing however it is due to the size of the superstore with 4,200 locations in the U.S. alone which causes it to have a greater impact on the economy (Palmer et al., 2003).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Is Walmart Good For America? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The reason why Wal-Mart has such a profound influence on both the U.S. and international economies is due to its sheer size and purchasing power which greatly influences the flow of products and services around the world. As such, though the strategies employed by Wal-Mart are in fact detrimental for the growth of the U.S. economy they are in fact rather beneficial towards the growth of several countries in the global economy. Works Cited CBC Documentary. New Age of Walmart. (2009). Retrieved from www.hulu.com/watch/103756/cnbc-originals-the-new-age-of-walmart#s-p1-so-i0 Elliott, Dorinda, and Powell, Bill. Ã¢â¬Å"Walmart Nation.Ã¢â¬ Time 165.26 (2005): 36-39. Vocational and Career Collection. EBSCO. Web. Paruchur i, Srikanth, Baum, Joel and Potere, David. Ã¢â¬Å"The Wal-Mart Effect:Wave of Destruction or Creative Destruction?.Ã¢â¬ Economic Geography 85.2 (2009): 209-236. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Petrovic, M. Hamilton, G. Making Global Markets Walmart and its Suppliers. (N.D.). pg. 107 Ã¢â¬â 141 This essay on Is Walmart Good For America? was written and submitted by user Dayana Frye to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 6, 2020
National and International Contexts Essays - Foreign Relations, Law National and International Contexts Childhood treated as a social construction raises concerns on the condition of children (elective notes) like early exposure to adult hood, vulnerability to exploitation be it in various forms; and the several demarcations of childhood as determined by policy. For example minimum age of admission to primary education, employment, further education. Therborn (1996) describes situations of collective action to promote change. An example cited is UNICEF. It was established in the after math of world war II as a temporary measure to provide emergency-humanitarian relief. It soon took over permanency to work for children particulars in education as a measure that will ensure elimination of child labour and exploitation. The WHO came up with several programmes to develop children's well being and health. Another observations development of a rights perspective and law for children was through a Child Rights Convention. Collective action lies at heart of policy that aims to promote and safeguard welfare of children. A rights perspective has the advantage of going beyond nation state politics to an international law with a norms and standards approach that treats political environment of children in a more meaningful manner. Knuttson (1997) argues that any development approach which is directed at influencing community change should involve children as active agents of change and "Emancipation". The impact and role of feminism through impact on family care and work affects children and their rights. The state of the World's Children 2007 Report states "Gender Equality and the well being of Children go hand in hand. When women are empowered to live full and productive lives children prosper UNICEF'S experience also shows the opposite. When women are denied equal opportunity within a society children suffer (Ann M Veneman, Executive Director United Nations children Fund, State of World in children 2007- UNICEF 2007.) The International programme on Elimination of Child Labour, (IPEC) is the International Labour Organistion (ILO) response to provide direct assistance to countries to tackle child labour and give teeth to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child made effective in 1989. Today (IPEC) has 30 funders and 86 programme countries.The ILO in it's report "The end of child labour; within reach" released in 2006 says, in 2004 there were 218 million children trapped in child labour of whom 126 million were in hazardous work. However the number of child labourers globally fell by 11% over the last four years, while that of children in hazardous work decreased by 26%. IPEC the campaign instrument against child labour conducted by ILO commenced in 1992 and has made several break throughs in advocacy; tackling the worst forms of child labour; developing a learning culture and mainstreaming child labour within the Decent Work agenda. ILO is also aware of future challenges. Child labour elimination may be mainstreamed into key development and Human Rights frame works like Millennium Development Goals and poverty reduction strategies. (www.ilo.org/declaration) Child labor first emerged as a major public policy issue with the impact of the industrial revolution. Industrialized Countries offered several packages of intervention to overcome presence of child labour like advocacy campaigns; public inquiries; minimum age legislation; education provision for working children. These have been expanded, in modern times and many developing counties have emulated these initiatives. The Elimination of child labour is linked with provision of compulsory, free and accessible education. Without educational opportunities it is likely that children will enter the labour market and take on dangerous and exploitative jobs. The Dakar Forum of 185 countries resolved to provide all children of primary age free schooling of quality by year 2015 and eliminate gender disparities by year 2005. Much remains to be achieved. Although concept of Education for All has not taken off the ground at an international scale, efforts are made with community groups, parents, employers, and government officials to remove children from work voluntarily and enroll them in school. An example is efforts of an NGO(MV foundation) made in India in state of Andrah Pradesh. It enabled 150,000 to be enrolled and retained in schools and more than 4,000 bonded labourers released and of 500 villages under project 168 made free of child labour. These results were achieved through awareness raising and demand for education of children; support for teachers through special training; support parents to provide alternatives to labour of child withdrawn; provide clearing schools to prepare children for formal education. (source: Child Labour a Global concern, www.schoolisthebestplacetowork.org) Some ILO actions against child labour. One of main aims set for ILO at its foundation in 1991 was abolition of child labour . ILO standards were embodied in concept of minimum age for
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Professional Ethics - Research Paper Example If he decides to send him to the asylum, then he is snatching away his independence but is reducing risk that the patient can pose to himself and others. Thus, the physician has to face a conflict between what is legal and what is ethical. Personal Values and Professional Ethics Ã¢â¬ ¢ The physician interacting with the patient should be honest and straightforward, and should deal with the patient in a candid fashion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The patient should also be honest with the physician. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The patientÃ¢â¬â¢s consent should be considered before sharing, selling or disclosing his personal information. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The patientÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy should be maintained by blocking unauthorized access to his health records and personal data. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Informed Consent is about having the capable patient take part in making decisions about his healthcare and treatment process (Wear, 1992). The patient should be well informed about all the circumstances and his wishes and judgment has to be considered by the practitioner. Ethical Theories and Principles According to Rainbow (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"ethical theories and principles are the foundations of ethical analysis because they are the viewpoints from which guidance can be obtained along the pathway to a decision.Ã¢â¬ Ethical Principles Beneficence. ... Justice. This principle states that physicians make ethical decisions that are fair to the patient and all those who are involved in the treatment process. The decisions should be made on logical bases. Ethical Theories Deontology. This theory focuses on that physicians should stick to their responsibilities when they are facing a dilemma in making ethical decisions. This will help them to make consistent decisions while adhering to their ethical obligations. Utilitarianism. This theory helps the physician to make choices whose consequences are better for the patient. He will make a decision that will yield greatest benefit to all involved. Rights. This theory respects and protects the rights of people as enforced by the society itself. Casuist. This theory enables the physicians to make decision about an ethical dilemma by comparing it to similar dilemmas and their consequences that might have happened in the past. Virtue. This theory is about judging a person through his values and standards rather than by his actions. Application to My Current Practice My current practice as a health practitioner is providing healthcare to e-consumers. I apply all ethical theories and principles because I aim to provide beneficence to my e-patients with least harm I can inflict upon them. I respect their decisions and stick to my ethical obligations. I strictly follow the Casuist theory whenever I am in some kind of a dilemma. For example, once I had to prescribe a diabetes patient to start insulin injections but I found out that his body was too frail to bear the injections twice a day. So, I referred to previous case histories of my patients to find out a
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
The Compromise of Self and Identity within Indonesian Contemporary Art - Essay Example The essay "The Compromise of Self and Identity within Indonesian Contemporary Art" talks about Indonesian Contemporary Art in the context of Compromise of Self and Identity. The aptitude for dialogue and ability to represent energetic reality is allowing the Indonesian contemporary artists to epitomize the most fundamental language. In addition, it has been an observation that any conceptual or artistic expression is always attenuated by a powerful, socio-political-cultural testimony. Perhaps nowhere is this disparity more strikingly seen than the swirling ideas in the exploration of self and identity, which undoubtedly fomented and regenerated repeatedly. Even so, the range of artworks conceived have become the Ã¢â¬Å"in-betweenÃ¢â¬ platform and terrain of difference that form their identity. In recent years, the social, political, and cultural reference within the formation of collective idealism has been called into question. The complexity of identity formation has reached a p oint in which so many versions of the self seem plausible. However, many artists offer a conception of both actual and conceptual self in which they coexist within cultural hybridization occurring in Indonesia. In this conception, the defining features of each self are retained and understandable to exist only in relationship to one another, like figure and ground, front stage and back stage as a single undifferentiated system of self and identity. In this regard, Indonesian artists today are capable of holding off. every explicit local or ethnic exercise while constructing new artistic or cultural traditions within their art. In specific, it is that duality of the idea of expression and ability to associate that gives way to opportunities of significant dialogue and powerful presentation of self. Unfortunately, it is observation that Indonesian contemporary art confronts misinterpretation as outsiders do not know the current situation in Indonesia, or that their knowledge on Indone sia is not up-to-date, hence, failing to understand the symbolism, perspective, and scope that the artwork entails. In short, taking consideration of not being present, the artwork becomes insignificant and loses integrity of its history. What one comprehends as the real identity of Indonesian art is in fact comes with various confrontations and misapplications, which eventually become difficult to be handled constructively. Various statements and answers on what message is actually conveyed in the artwork ultimately only succeed to reveal the fact that the art is still being questioned. Thus, one can understand why at certain times, the principals of art in this country are determined to find the Ã¢â¬Ëtrue identityÃ¢â¬â¢, while threatening all the potential establishment of Ã¢â¬Ëfalse identitiesÃ¢â¬â¢. The term Ã¢â¬Ëcontemporary Indonesian artÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âor its fractions, Ã¢â¬ËartÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËcontemporaryÃ¢â¬â¢, has never been under instant declaration. Ther efore, that term alongside with the awareness in understanding it develops gradually, and has its own contexts within the discourse. Although curator Jim Supangkat was not the pioneer of Ã¢â¬Ëcontemporary artÃ¢â¬â¢ during the significant shift in Indonesian art; however, during that time, through his views and in supporting other artists, he was
Monday, January 27, 2020
Dietrich Bonhoeffer Against Hitler Dietrich Bonhoeffer is remembered for many things. He was a highly influential theologian and preacher. His importance as a theologian has only increased since his death. However, he is also remembered for his opposition against Nazi Germany. For the purposes of this paper, I look at three aspects of Bonhoeffers involvement. First, I examine his statements against Hitler and the extent to which he sought to make his opinions known. Second, I consider his involvement in conspiracies to eliminate Hitler. Lastly, I examine Bonhoeffers reflections on his actions, which he wrote while in prison. Although Bonhoeffers actions may raise many questions of morality and ethics, there is no doubt that he played a significant role within the opposition of Nazi Germany. When many people study the Holocaust, they fault Christians for remaining silent as Hitler performed one horrific act after another. Many would say that silence was just as horrible as killing the victims. Bonhoeffer cannot be faulted for this. Rather, he proved to be very outspoken. One of his most popular speeches was that on a German radio show. He was to speak on The Younger Generations Altered View of the Concept of Fuhrer in the Berlin Potsdamerstrasse Voxhaus (broadcasting house). Dietrich was not hesitant to express how he felt about the Fuhrer principle. This speech was given on February 1, 1933, and Hitler had just risen to power days prior. Much of Bonhoeffers words addressed the notion that the youth had been led astray concerning their concept of the Fuhrer. His boldest statement was said toward the end of the broadcast. However, once broadcasters realized that these words should not be heard by others, he was turned off. This was proof that Joseph Goebbels (the Nazi min ister of propaganda) had most likely gained the control of the radio station. Bonhoeffer stated that his speech was carefully planned to fit the allotted time. His final sentences read, should the leader surrender to the wishes of his followers, who would always make him their idol- then the image of the Leader will gradually become the image of the misleaderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Leaders or offices which set themselves up as gods mock God (Bethge, pg. 260). His entire speech was later copied and distributed. Bonhoeffer felt that the Fuhrer principle was nothing short of idolatry. Therefore, he was implying that Hitler demanded his people to worship him. This was contempt. This proved to be one of Dietrich Bonhoeffers first outbursts on Hitler. However, there were many others of the sort. There is an account in which Bishop Bell gives that he speaks of Bonhoeffer being very outspoken against Germany. Bell recalls sitting with him amongst others at a friends home in Geneva. Dietrich is approached with the question about what he is praying for. He responds with very harsh statements. If you want to know the truth, I pray for the defeat of my nation, for I believe that is the only way to pay for all the suffering which my country has caused in the world (Bosanquet, pg. 229). He was much convicted about the acts of injustice in which Hitler was repeatedly performing. Bonhoeffer knew that the annihilation of the Jews was wrong, and he was not ashamed to let others know his beliefs. Bell gives an account of a later statement that Bonhoeffer made, If we claim to be Christians there is no room for expediency. Hitler is Antichrist; therefore we must go on with our work and eliminate him, whether he be successful or not (Bosanquet, pg. 229). He felt that it was necessary for him to aid in the elimination of the Fuhrer. Next, I study Bonhoeffers involvement in the conspiracy to kill Hitler. He participated in the Abwehr, which was the military counter intelligence. Within this group was also his brother-in-law, Hans von Dohnanyi. It is said that Dohnanyi was directly involved in the plot to assassinate Hitler. However, Bonhoeffer had somewhat of a different role. It was his duty to contact other countries to gain their support if the assassination were to prove successful. He spent much time traveling, making others aware of the resistance movement. He felt that it was important to know that they had allies assuming that the German government was taken over. Upon visiting Geneva, he attempted to convince them of this, What they needed, Dietrich explained, was a signal from the Allies that once the Nazis were overthrown, the Allies were prepared to recognize a new German government (Raum, pg. 126). This was clearly a well thought out plan. Dietrich traveled to Norway, Italy, as well as Switzerland to gain the support of Bishop Bell. He also attempted to make connections with other German resistance groups, but difficulties arose. A very important assassination attempt took place on March 7, 1943. Hitler was traveling to East Prussia by way of plane. A gift disguised as a box of Brandy was given to him. However, it was a bomb. The bomb was sneaked onto the plane, but it never ignited. Involved in this attempt were members of the Abwehr. This included General Oster, Admiral Canaris, Dohnanyi, Fabian von Schlabrendorff, and General Henning von Tresckow (Raum, pg. 132). Due to the failed attempt, the Abwehr decided to try again. They developed another strategy to kill Hitler. Hitler was originally scheduled to attend a ceremony at an army museum on March 16, 1943, however he rescheduled for March 21st. Colonel von Gersdorff was supposed to get the bomb into Hitlers presence without causing much commotion, even if this meant killing himself in the process. Needless to say, this attempt failed as well. Fortunately, they were not caught in the attempt to execute the assassination. Bonhoeffer was at home with his family during this attempt; however he was expecting a phone call announcing Hitlers assassination, and was disappointed to hear of the failed endeavor. There was in fact a third attempt to kill Hitler, but Bonhoeffer had already been arrested. He was arrested in 1943 in connection with the assassination attempt on Hitler (Scott and Cavanaugh, pg. 139). However, since the Abwehr was a secret group, many of the documents were hidden or destroyed. As a result, there was limited evidence. Much of the evidence used to arrest Bonhoeffer was his connection to Operation 7. The operation was designed to help to free several Jews. The Abwehr was attempting to help the Jews to Switzerland. The fact that Bonhoeffer was involved in several attempts to kill Hitler raises many questions. Due to the fact that Dietrich considered himself a devout member of the Confessing Church makes one question how his beliefs would support such an act. However, Dietrich does not express any conviction about his involvement in the multiple plots to murder Hitler. Bonhoeffer clearly felt that the assassination of Hitler was the last resort. Hitlers actions were proving to gain momentum and were spinning out of control. Therefore Dietrich felt that it was necessary to take action. Through the reading of his writings leading up to his death, he does not seem to be living in fear. He almost appears to be welcoming death. In the first sentence of a writing titled Death, he states Come now thou greatest of feasts on the journey to freedom eternal (Bosanquet, pg. 265). As one can see, Bonhoeffer appears to be at great peace with his fate. Many within the prison commented that Bonhoeffer seemed to be very lively and almost happy. Others would argue that this was due to the fact that the Soviets were closing in and that the prisoners were anticipating liberation. However, fellow prisoners describe it as an inner joy that he experienced. This joy Bonhoeffer desired to share with others. During his imprisonment at Tegel while awaiting trial, many descri be Bonhoeffer as victorious. Bonhoeffer experienced a change of heart. As a result, he no longer viewed his own sufferings within prison as something of which he should be concerned. Rather he stated, we throw ourselves completely into the arms of God, taking seriously not our own sufferings, but the sufferings of God in the world (Bosanquet, pg. 271). Bonhoeffer viewed the acts of injustice as not only actions taken against innocent victims, he saw them as actually taking unjust actions toward God. It appears as if Dietrich did not view his involvement in the Abwehr as wrong. Through his writings in prison and the comments of others, he had a clear conscience and eagerly awaited his arrival in Heaven. In conclusion, Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a very influential person during the World War II and especially in opposition to the Nazi Regime. As one can see in his radio broadcast, from the beginning he was very outspoken against Hitler and the Fuhrer principle. He was very bold in comparing this principle to the mockery of God. He played a very active role in the military counter intelligence (Abwehr). Bonhoeffer never hesitated in completing his assignments to gain support of the actions to overthrow the German government. Many would agree that Dietrich Bonhoeffer was very confident that his actions against Hitler were not wrong. Rather, he felt that they were his duty as a result of a conviction to do the right thing. His statements on death and also his inner joy as a result of a relationship with God greatly support this claim.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Nowadays we live in what is considered a Ã¢â¬Å"global villageÃ¢â¬ , over time we have collectively worked towards this end. The need and desire to create a closer global community is not only seen as a technological advantage but an economic benefit. The world as we know it gets smaller every day, thanks to a new generation of social media applications such as facebook or twitter, which links vast communities together; communities and cultures are no longer cut off or remote. Take facebook for example, it has over 1 billion users, if it were a country it would be the third largest by population. (www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/2013/012313.htm) Whether you live and work in remote Antarctica or bustling Hong Kong, technology and the studies of inter-culture communication ensures that people, governments and organizations can work effectively together in a harmonious and beneficial way. Naturally, this is an ideal situation, but as experience tells us, nothing is ever as simple. This essay explores how cultural differences effect meaning and communication. In doing so it will look at the definition of culture, what it is, and how it affects meaning. Furthermore, it will look at the acclaimed Dutch researcher, Geert HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s four dimensions of corporate culture as a framework to define and categorize cultural differences. Finally, it will raise potential problems raised in the field of inter-cultural communications and provide suggestions to overcome them. What is culture? Currently there are over Ã¢â¬Å"7 billion human inhabitants living on this planet. Each of these earth dwellers comes from a specific culture. (geography.about.com/od/obtainpopulationdata/a/worldpopulation.htm) As the world becomes smaller, not physically, but by the use of new media and technology, as they traverse earth looking for new or better opportunities, so must they face the modern conundrum of understanding firstly, what is culture, and secondly, how the differences between cultures effect meaning and communications. Without an understanding of different cultures, the potential for misunderstanding is high, with the ever-present possibility of a breakdown in relationships and opportunities. (Dostine, 2008, pg 58) text book suggests that all humans can be broadly defined by our culture. In essence, we are all born into a culture that over time has been passed down from previous generations, bestowing a rich history, significant culture defining traits such as its religion, its values and ethics, its ceremonies, rites and rituals, languages, customs, laws and business practices. Moreover, verbal and non-verbal communications practices that differ from one culture to the next. Therefore, suffice to say that the more we know about each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s cultures the more effective our communication and co-habitation of the planet will be. How does cultural effect meaning? At the best of times, communication between individuals can be somewhat challenging. Add to that mix, communicating with people from another cultures and suddenly, the propensity for misunderstanding and in some cases offence can very easily take place as a result of the differences between the cultural backgrounds, understanding and meaning between the sender and receiver can be in stark contrast. This can be due to the increase in variables in the communication mix, therefore making global interaction more complex. Furthermore, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perception or way of thinking, hearing or seeing can vary quite extensively from one culture to the next. It could be strongly argued that it would be highly advantageous for both parties to be aware of the differences and therefore the potential for problems that arise from inter-cultural communication. Nowadays, many multi-national organizations, governments and educators have training and education programs in place. They see the importance in creating a clear, concise and respectful flow of communications between cultures. An example of this could be the department of foreign affairs and trade (DFAT) in Canberra. One of its main functions is to liaise internally and externally to better position itself to and for greater opportunity. It would be highly likely that the department has educated its employees in the science of how to deal effectively with other cultures (governments, organizations, businesses). One of DFATs main objectives is to Ã¢â¬Å"work with other government agencies to ensure that AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of its global, regional and bilateral interests is coordinated effectivelyÃ¢â¬ . (dfat.gov.au/dept/what-we-do.html) In the field of organizational cultural studies, a Dutch researcher known as Geert Hofstede went on to publish his highly regarded findings. These findings have become a highly influential and acceptable way in which modern organizations can asses the difference between national culture and organizational culture. Hostede, seen as a pioneer in area of corporate culture, created a framework in which to asses national cultural groups and how they may affect or influence behaviors within an organization. HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s research in the 1980s, included the survey and analysis of hundreds of thousands of employees across fifty countries, to further increase the validity of his findings he followed up several years later by re-surveying these workers. In his work Hofstede asserted that the values that differentiated counties from each other fell into four dissimilar categories or clusters. Through the process of his study in corporate culture, HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s created a framework whereby he classified culture into four different dimensions. These dimensions looked at four anthropological problem areas that societies tend to handle differently to one another. Such as, ways in which they cope with inequality, uncertainty, the relationship between the individual and their primary group and implication of the persons sex. Born from this was HofstedÃ¢â¬â¢s four dimensions of national culture. They become knows as Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism versus Collectivism, and Masculinity versus Femininity. (www.geerthofstede.nl/dimensions-of-national-cultures) In discussing the Four Dimensions of Culture, Hofstede claims that: Power Distance Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality (more versus less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that Ã¢â¬Å"all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than othersÃ¢â¬ . Uncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty avoidance deals with a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, and different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth: Ã¢â¬Å"there can only be one Truth and we have itÃ¢â¬ . People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy. The opposite type, uncertainty accepting cultures, are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to; they try to have as few rules as possible, and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. People within these cultures are more phleg matic and contemplative, and not expected by their environment to express emotions. Individualism Individualism on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. On the individualist side, we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after her/himself and her/his immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (with uncles, aunts and grandparents) that continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. The word collectivism in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group, not to the state. Again, the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one, regarding all societies in the world. Masculinity Masculinity versus its opposite, femininity refers to the distribution of emotional roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The IBM studies revealed that (a) womenÃ¢â¬â¢s values differ less among societies than menÃ¢â¬â¢s values; (b) menÃ¢â¬â¢s values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from womenÃ¢â¬â¢s values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s values on the other. The assertive pole has been called masculine and the modest, caring pole feminine. The women in feminine countries have the same modest, caring values as the men; in the masculine countries they are more assertive and more competitive, but not as much as the men, so that these countries show a gap between menÃ¢â¬â¢s values and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s values. (www.geerthofstede.nl/dimensions-of-national-cultures) Whilst HofstedÃ¢â¬â¢s four dimensions are highly regarded, further research has highlighted other areas that effect intercultural communication and understanding. These include context, language and non-verbal communications. Firstly, it is almost impossible to investigate research into the cross-cultural issues without making mention of Edward HallÃ¢â¬â¢s research in the area; he asserted that cultures are defined by context. (Hansen & Lee, pg,30) A personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior can be affected by its cultural context. (Dostine, 2008) From here, he broke context down into low context cultures; these prefer direct verbal interaction with minimal regard to context. Examples include Australia, USA, Germany, Switzerland, and Scandinavian cultures.
Friday, January 10, 2020
A childÃ¢â¬â¢s tiny feet, Blue, blue with cold, How can they see and not protect you? Oh, my God! (1-4) Tiny wounded feet, Bruised all over by pebbles, Abused by snow and soil! (5-7) Man, being blind, ignores that where you step, you leave A blossom of bright light, that where you have placed your bleeding little soles a redolent tuberose grows. (8-13) Since, however, you walk through the streets so straight, you are courageous, without fault.(14-16) ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s tiny feet, Two suffering little gems, How can the people pass, unseeing. (17-19) The poem Ã¢â¬Å"Tiny FeetÃ¢â¬ (1945) by Gabriela Mistral is a heart breaking poem that describes to us the lives of poverty-stricken children and the need for society to help and protect them. MistralÃ¢â¬â¢s poems resulted from a life of tragedies that she, herself endured. When she was 3 years old, her father left home and never returned, leaving her mother and half-sister to raise her. Mistral was falsely accused of wasting classroom materials in school, and was unable to defend herself. She was then victimized by her peers when they threw stones at her and she was sent home to be taught by her half-sister. This was the first instance of injustice and human cruelty that she encountered which left a profound impression on her as a poet. She was determined to speak for the defenseless, humble and the poor. In the poem, her views are expressed as to how society ignores child poverty. The tone is sad at the beginning of the poem. Within the first stanza, Mistral explains the scene of the poem perfectly. Mistral presents the description of the barefooted feet of a little child, whom has no shoes in the following lines, Ã¢â¬Å"A childÃ¢â¬â¢s tiny feet, Blue, blue with coldÃ¢â¬ (1-2). She lets the reader know that the child is suffering in the cold with his painful, wounded feet, yet no one cares if he has shoes or not. Ã¢â¬Å"How can they see and not protect you?Ã¢â¬ (3), here Mistral points out that no one stops to help or protect the child. They just walk by as if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t even notice. The author, who was a religious woman cries out, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, my God!Ã¢â¬ (4) She calls out to God to help her to understand how the people could ignore the child and its needs. MistralÃ¢â¬â¢s love for the child is expressed in this stanza with passion and wrath. This stanza leaves the reader to question how people could not see the issue of child poverty that is visual right in front of people passing by. The second stanza describes the harsh environments in which the child is living and the hardships it has to face every day. The lines Ã¢â¬Å"Tiny wounded feet, Bruised all over by pebbles, Abused by snow and soil!Ã¢â¬ (5-7) describe the image of the feet and that they are battered and torn from the elements. Mistral explains to the reader about the suffering and distress the child is enduring, not because his feet hurt, but that no one cares or tries to protect him from harm. Mistral employs the device of imagery to display this scene, as the reader can clearly visualize the childÃ¢â¬â¢s battered feet. The images directly connect the reader because we can easily feel the childÃ¢â¬â¢s pain. The third stanza speaks of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence in the world. Ã¢â¬Å"Man, being blind, ignores that where you step you leave, a blossom of bright lightÃ¢â¬ (8-10) depicts that for each step the child takes it could be towards progress but because the people are to blind to see them, they will never know their full potential or what they could become. Ã¢â¬Å"That where you have placed your bleeding little soles a redolent tuberose growsÃ¢â¬ (11-13), the author explains that is not the childÃ¢â¬â¢s fault that he has to endure these hardships. She expresses that society could help the child by giving him a chance at a better life and see what progress could be made, but still theyÃ ignore him and the possibility. The fourth stanza explains the courage the child has while facing adversity. By reviewing the first two lines, Ã¢â¬Å"Since, however, you walk through the streets so straight,Ã¢â¬ (14-15) the reader can understand that the child is brave, and is not giving up hope, for one day he may have a better life. The last line of the fourth stanza states that Ã¢â¬Å"You are courageous, without faultÃ¢â¬ (16) and shows the reader that through adversity and hardships, the child seems to not give up and that it is no fault of his own that he currently has to live this life of poverty. Mistral criticizes society for not wanting to help the child. Two incomplete sentences and a question make up the fifth stanza. The incomplete sentences help the reader to understand the view of the author. In the lines Ã¢â¬Å"ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s tiny feet, Two suffering little gems,Ã¢â¬ (17-18) the author addresses the agony the child is enduring and compares the childÃ¢â¬â¢s feet to gems, stating how children are a blessing, and should be protected as you would protect any precious gem. Mistral ends the poem with the following question, Ã¢â¬Å"How can the people pass, unseeing.Ã¢â¬ (19) The Ã¢â¬ËunseeingÃ¢â¬â¢ people are those that take for granted the blessing of children, as having her own children is something she deeply desires. Mistral is concerned about the future of the child in a society that looked away from poverty stricken children who grew up poor knowing no other way of life. How could society continue to ignore child poverty and not intervene and protect them? The last stanza leads the reader to firmly believe that no one helped the child. Part II: Scansion and Analysis The central theme and meaning of the poem is children in poverty, and the neglect by society. Children are the innocence of the world and it is our responsibility as adults to help guide and protect them. The poem is written in free verse and it has no set meter. The only rhyme within the poem is an internal rhyme that is located within the line number 11, a Ã¢â¬Å"Blossom of bright light.Ã¢â¬ The tone of the poem begins as sad, and full of despair with the very idea of children living in poverty with no one to care for them. Though, by the middle of the poem, the tone changes when theÃ author shows hope is felt for the children because they are brave. The poem has five stanzas. The views and thoughts of the author are within all stanzas. Imagery is used throughout the poem. For instance, you can clearly imagine that because the childÃ¢â¬â¢s feet are so cold that they have turned blue. The reader can also visualize how the feet are bleeding from stepping on pebbles. The author uses a metaphor technique when comparing the childÃ¢â¬â¢s feet to precious gems as children are just as precious as gems and should be protected as such. The lines within the poem are sometimes difficult because of their harshness while reading, but the author uses this to promote an intended effect, giving the reader an emotional and uncomfortable uncertainty. The author also uses descriptive adjectives to bring deeper meaning to the poem. By using words that are not well known causes the reader to search for meanings to better understand the writing. I chose to view this poem through a thematic mode. I believe Mistral used the theme of the poem to bring awareness to society regarding childhood poverty. Her approach made it easy for the reader to understand the theme and the issue at hand. I also agree with Mistral that society as a whole turns the other way and does not want to help the neglected and poverty stricken individuals. The general message of the poem is to tell society to open its eyes to children in poverty and stop taking everything for granted. I feel that the poem is an expression of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional and physical pain that is endured in poverty, as well as the pain the author feels by seeing the neglected children. Mistral expressed that children were the future, and in order for the future to look bright, there must be children that love the world in which they live. Works Cited Mistral, Gabriela. Poet Seers. n.d. 26 June 2014 .